Undergraduate Education: BA, Molecular Biology, San Jose State University, 1979
Graduate Education: PhD, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1986
Post-doctoral education: Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara
Previous Faculty Positions:  Asst. Prof, Assoc. Prof., Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Wisconsin (1991 – 2008)
Memberships: International Color Vision Society (ICVS), Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)

Academic Interests

Maureen and Jay Neitz collaborate on all aspects of their research, bringing a broad range of techniques and skill sets to bear on questions about how the human visual system works.  The labs have several focus areas including:

1) identifying variants of the human cone photopigments that underlie photoreceptor-based vision disorders including age-related macular degeneration, nearsightedness, glaucoma, and color vision deficiencies;

2) developing genetic tests to identify individuals at risk for these disorders before they develop symptoms to maximize the possibility of preventing vision loss;

3) developing new tools for assessing visual function in the laboratory;

4) developing a cure for color blindness that can be used in humans, and

5) developing a better understanding of the neural circuitry for color vision.


Awards & Honors 

1981-1983: Regents Fellow, University of California, Santa Barbara
1991-1995: Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award
1995-1996: Research to Prevent Blindness, James S. Adams Scholar
2000-2001: Research to Prevent Blindness, Lew Wasserman Merit Award
2002-2003: Research to Prevent Blindness, Senior Scientific Investigator Award
2002: Alcon Research Institute Award for Excellence in Research
2005-2008: Richard O. Schultz-Ruth A. Works Endowed Professor, Medical College of Wisconsin
2009-present: Ray H Hill Endowed professorship
2010: Inaugural Jay Pepose Award in Vision Sciences, Brandeis University
2001-2002: Recipient, Outstanding Mentor Award, Graduate Student Association, Medical College of Wisconsin

McClements M, Davies WI, Michaelides M, et al. Variations in opsin coding sequences cause x-linked cone dysfunction syndrome with myopia and dichromacy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54:1361-1369.

McClements M, Davies WI, Michaelides M, et al. X-linked cone dystrophy and colour vision deficiency arising from a missense mutation in a hybrid L/M cone opsin gene. Vision Res 2013; 80:41-50.

Pauers M, Kuchenbecker J, Neitz M, J N. Changes in the colour of light cue circadian activity. Animal Behavior 2012;83:1143-1151.

Godara P, Cooper RF, Sergouniotis PI, et al. Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and oguchi disease. Am J Ophthalmol 2012;154:987-1001.

Carroll J, Dubra A, Gardner JC, et al. The effect of cone opsin mutations on retinal structure and the integrity of the photoreceptor mosaic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:8006-8015.

Baraas RC, Hagen LA, Dees EW, Neitz M. Substitution of isoleucine for threonine at position 190 of S-opsin causes S-cone-function abnormalities. Vision Res 2012;73:1-9.

Neitz J, Neitz M. The Genetics of Normal and Defective Color Vision. Vision Research 2011;51:633-651.

Bunce J, Isbell L, Neitz M, et al. Characterization of opsin gene alleles affecting color vision in a wild population of titi monkeys (Callicebus brunneus). Am J Primatol 2011;73:189-196.

Wagner-Schuman M, Neitz J, Rha J, Williams DR, Neitz M, Carroll J. Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions. Vision Research 2010;50:2396-2402.

Soares J, Fiorani M, Araujo E, et al. Cone photopigment variations in Cebus apella monkeys evidenced by electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis. Vision Research 2010;50:99-106.

Mancuso K, Mauck MC, Kuchenbecker JA, Neitz M, Neitz J. A multi-stage color model revisited: Implications for a gene therapy cure for red-green colorblindness. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2010;664:631-638.

Carroll J, Rossi E, Porter J, et al. Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic. Vision Research 2010;50:1989-1999.

Mancuso K, Hauswirth WW, Li Q, et al. Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates. Nature 2009;461:784-787.

Carroll J, Baraas RC, Wagner-Schuman M, et al. Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106:20948-20953.

Shevell SS, Sun Y, Neitz M. Protanomaly-without-darkened-red dueteranopia with rods. Vision Research 2008;48:2599-2603.

McMahon C, Carroll J, Awua S, Neitz J, Neitz M. The L:M cone ratio in males of African descent with normal color vision. Journal of Vision 2008;8:1-9.

Mauck MC, Mauncuso, K., Kuchenbecher, J., Connor, T.B., Hauswirth, W. W., Neitz, J., Neitz, M. . Longitudinal evaluation of expression of virally delivered transgenes in gerbil cone photoreceptors. Visual Neuroscience 2008;25:273-282.

Kuchenbecker J, Sahay M, Tait DM, Neitz M, Neitz J. Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram. Visual Neuroscience 2008;25:301-306.

Gunther K, Neitz J, Neitz M. Nucleotide polymorphisms upstream of the X-chromosome opsin gene array tune L:M cone ratio. Visual Neuroscience 2008;25:265-271.

Barbur JL, Rodriguez-Carmona M, Harlow JA, Mancuso K, Neitz J, Neitz M. A study of unusual Rayleigh matches in deutan deficiency. Visual Neuroscience 2008;25:507-516.

Mancuso K, Hendrickson AE, Connor TB, Jr., et al. Recombinant adeno-associated virus targets passenger gene expression to cones in primate retina. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2007;24:1411-1416.

Baraas RC, Carroll J, Gunther KL, et al. Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color vision deficiency. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2007;24:1438-1447.

Neitz M, Balding SD, McMahon C, Sjoberg SA, Neitz J. Topography of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cone opsin gene expression in human and Old World monkey retina. Visual Neuroscience 2006;23:379-385.

Mancuso K, Neitz M, Neitz J. An adaptation of the Cambridge Colour Test for use with animals. Visual Neuroscience 2006;695-701.

Knoblauch K, Neitz M, Neitz J. An urn model of the development of L/M cone ratios in human and macaque retina. Visual Neuroscience 2006;23:591-596.

Gunther KL, Neitz J, Neitz M. A novel mutation in the short-wavelength sensitive cone pigment gene associated with a tritan color vision defect. Visual Neuroscience 2006;23:403-409.

Talebi MG, Pope TR, Neitz M, Dominy NJ. Polymorphism of visual pigment genes in the muriqui (Primates, Atelidae). Molecular Ecology 2005;15:551-558.

Hofer H, Carroll J, Neitz J, Neitz M, Williams DR. Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic. Journal of Neuroscience 2005;25:9669-9679.

Renner AB, Knau H, Neitz M, Neitz J, Werner JS. Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea. Visual Neuroscience 2004;21:827-834.

Neitz M, Carroll J, Renner A, Knau H, Werner JS, Neitz J. Variety of genotypes in males diagnosed as dichromatic on a conventional clinical anomaloscope. Visual Neuroscience 2004;21:205-216.

McMahon C, Neitz J, Neitz M. Evaluating the human X-chromosome pigment gene promoter sequences as predictors of L:M cone ratio variation. Journal of Vision 2004;4:203-208.

Crognale MA, Fry M, Highsmith J, et al. Characterization of a novel form of X-linked incomplete achromatopsia. Visual Neuroscience 2004;21:197-204.

Carroll J, Neitz M, Hofer H, Neitz J, Williams DR. Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics:  An alternate cause of color blindness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101:8461-8466.

Bollinger K, Sjoberg S, Neitz M, Neitz J. Topographical cone photopigment gene expression in deutan-type red-green color vision defects. Vision Research 2004;34:135-145.

Bailey JE, Neitz M, Tait D, Neitz J. Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test. Visual Neuroscience 2004;21:431-436.

Williams DR, Hofer H, Carroll J, Neitz M, Neitz J. Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2003;44:U305-U305.

Yamauchi Y, Williams DR, Roorda A, et al. What determines unique yellow, L/M cone ratio or visual experience? Proceedings of SPIE 2002;4421:275-278.

Neitz J, Carroll J, Yamauchi Y, Neitz M, Williams DR. Color perception in mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults. Neuron 2002;35:783-792.

Carroll J, Neitz M, Neitz J. Estimates of L:M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics. Journal of Vision 2002;2:531-542.

Sjoberg SA, Neitz M, Neitz J. The X-chromosome cone pigment gene array as a candidate locus for age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2001;42:S63-S63.

Neitz M, Neitz J. A new mass screening test for color-vision deficiencies in children. Color Research & Application 2001;26:S239-S249.

Neitz M, Neitz J. The uncommon retina of the common house mouse. Trends Neurosci 2001;24:248-249.

Neitz M, Neitz J. A new test for mass screening of school age children for red-green color vision defects. Color Research & Application 2001;26:S239-S249.

Neitz J, Carroll J, Neitz M. Color vision: Almost reason enough for having eyes. Optic Photon News 2001;12:26-33.

Crognale MA, Nolan JB, Webster MA, Neitz M, Neitz J. Color vision and genetics in a case of cone dysfunction syndrome. Color Research & Application 2001;26:S284-S287.

Carroll J, Neitz M, Neitz J. Testing hypotheses about visual pigments underlying deutan color vision defects. Color Research & Application 2001;26:S106-S111.

Carroll J, Murphy CJ, Neitz M, Ver Hoeve JN, Neitz J. Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in the horse. Journal of Vision 2001;1:80-87.

Anderson DH, Ozaki S, Nealon M, et al. Local cellular sources of apolipoprotein E in the human retina and retinal pigmented epithelium: implications for the process of drusen formation. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2001;131:767-781.

Neitz M, Neitz J. Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects. Archives of Ophthalmology 2000;118:691-700.

Hagstrom SA, Neitz M, Neitz J. Cone pigment gene expression in individual photoreceptors and the chromatic topography of the retina. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2000;17:527-537.

Carroll J, McMahon C, Neitz M, Neitz J. Flicker-photometric electroretinogram estimates of L : M cone photoreceptor ratio in men with photopigment spectra derived from genetics. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2000;17:499-509.

Brainard D, Roorda A, Yamauchi Y, et al. Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2000;17:607-614.

Neitz J, Neitz M, He JC, Shevell SK. Trichromatic color vision with only two spectrally distinct photopigments. Nature Neuroscience 1999;2:884-888.

Sjoberg SA, Neitz M, Balding SD, Neitz J. L-cone pigment genes expressed in normal colour vision. Vision Research 1998;38:3213-3219.

Shevell SK, He JC, Kainz PM, Neitz J, Neitz M. Relating color discrimination to photopigment genes in deutan observers. Vision Research 1998;38:3371-3376.

Neitz M, Kraft TW, Neitz J. Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females. Vision Research 1998;38:3221-3225.

Kraft TW, Neitz J, Neitz M. Spectra of human L cones. Vision Research 1998;38:3663-3670.

Kainz PM, Neitz M, Neitz J. Molecular genetic detection of female carriers of protan defects. Vision Research 1998;38:3365-3369.

Kainz PM, Neitz J, Neitz M. Recent evolution of uniform trichromacy in a new world monkey. Vision Research 1998;38:3315-3320.

Hagstrom SA, Neitz J, Neitz M. Variations in cone populations for red-green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA. NeuroReport 1998;9:1963-1967.

Bieber ML, Werner JS, Knoblauch K, Neitz J, Neitz M. M- and L-cones in early infancy: III. Comparison of genotypic and phenotypic markers of color vision in infants and adults. Vision Research 1998;38:3293-3297.

Balding SD, Sjoberg SA, Neitz J, Neitz M. Pigment gene expression in protan color vision defects. Vision Research 1998;38:3359-3364.

Neitz J, Neitz M, Kainz PM. Visual pigment gene structure and the severity of human color vision defects. Science 1996;274:801-804.

Jacobs GH, Neitz M, Neitz J. Mutations in S-cone pigment genes and the absence of colour vision in two species of nocturnal primate. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 1996;263:705-710.

Jacobs GH, Neitz M, Deegan JF, II, Neitz J. Trichromatic colour vision in New World monkeys. Nature 1996;382:156-158.

Neitz M, Neitz J, Jacobs GH. Genetic basis of photopigment variations in human dichromats. Vision Research 1995;35:2095-2103.

Neitz M, Neitz J, Grishok A. Polymorphism in the number of genes encoding long-wavelength sensitive cone pigments among males with normal color vision. Vision Research 1995;35:2395-2407.

Neitz M, Neitz J. Numbers and ratios of visual pigment genes for normal red-green color vision. Science 1995;267:1013-1016.

Neitz J, Neitz M, Jacobs GH. More than three different cone pigments among people with normal color vision. Vision Research 1993;33:117-122.

Jacobs GH, Neitz J, Neitz M. Genetic basis of polymorphism in the color vision of platyrrhine monkeys. Vision Research 1993;33:269-274.

Jacobs GH, Deegan II JF, Neitz J, Crognale M, Neitz M. Photopigments and color vision in the nocturnal monkey, Aotus. Vision Research 1993;33:1773-1783.

Neitz M, Neitz J, Jacobs GH. Spectral tuning of pigments underlying red-green color vision. Science 1991;252:971-974.

Neitz J, Neitz M, Jacobs GH. Analysis of fusion gene and encoded photopigment of colour-blind humans. Nature 1989;342:679-682.

Neitz M, Carbon J. Characterization of a centromere-linked recombination hot spot. Mol Cell Biol 1987;7:3871-3879.



University of Washington
Department of Ophthalmology
750 Republican Street
Box 358058
Seattle, WA  98109
206 543 7998

website:  www.neitzvision.com


Vision Research Scientist